Nosce te ipsum

(Kare wo shiri onore wo shireba hyakusen ayaukarazu;
“When you know your opponent and yourself, you need not fear a hundred battles.”)


If you know the strengths, weaknesses, and situation of yourself, your allies, and your foes, then you need never fear defeat even through a hundred battles. Information and awareness, especially self-awareness, are vital to success.


We begin with a conditional clause, marked by and ending with the suffix ば (ba). The conditional suffix applies to two verb phrases, both using the particle を (wo) to mark a noun as the object of the verb 知る (shiru), “to know.” In the first phrase, the noun is 彼 (kare), often translated as “he” but in this case meaning “that person,” or in this context, one’s opponent in battle. In the second phrase, the noun is 己 (onore), “self.” In the first phrase, the verb is in conjunctive form, allowing it to connect to the second. And in the second, it’s in perfective form, connecting with a ば that is conditional rather than hypothetical – that is to say, in Japanese it’s a “when” ba rather than an “if” ba.

The latter part of the saying comprises the number 百 (hyaku), “hundred,” the noun 戦 (sen), “battle,” and the adverb 殆うく (ayauku), “barely,” “with danger,” in negative sentence-final form.


殆 is no longer a standard character for “dangerous,” nor is ayauku a standard reading for this character. Although 危 is not in the original text, using it is apparently not considered an error in contemporary Japanese.

As you may well have expected, this saying comes straight from Sun Tzu’s The Art of War – specifically the third chapter, on “strategic attack” (謀攻).

Example sentence:


(Kare wo shiri onore wo shireba hyakusen ayaukarazu to iu no ni, ano seijika wa suriru no tame ni sensou gokko shitagatteru mitai da na. Hito no koto wa oroka, onore no koto sura shiranai kuse ni.”)

[“They say that when you know your opponent and know yourself, you need not fear a hundred battles – but that politician seems to want to play at war just for the thrill. Even though – much less knowing others – he doesn’t even know himself.”]

About Confanity

I love the written word more than anything else I've had the chance to work with. I'm back in the States from Japan for grad school, but still studying Japanese with the hope of becoming a translator -- or writer, or even teacher -- as long as it's something language-related.
This entry was posted in Japanese, Kotowaza and tagged , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

2 Responses to Nosce te ipsum

  1. locksleyu says:

    Interesting quote! At first I thought it was the first time I came across 殆う, but then I remembered the word 危うい which I guess it guess has the same base (though different Kanji)

    • Confanity says:

      Yeah, these days when you see 殆 it’s as 殆ど (, but in this kotowaza I’m pretty sure it’s the adverb ayau.ku. (Without it ending in .ku I see no way to get the ka in karazu.)

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s